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  • Title: Quota Database | quotaProject: Global Database of Quotas for Women
    Descriptive info: .. Global Database of Quotas for Women.. Home.. About project.. Quotas.. Search database.. Resources.. Updates.. FAQ.. français.. |.. More.. Women still constitute only 19.. 6 per cent of the members of parliaments around the world.. In what way can quotas contribute to the political empowerment of women?.. more.. Explore quota data.. Choose a country below to start exploring the quota data.. - Select country -.. Afghanistan.. Albania.. Algeria.. Angola.. Argentina.. Armenia.. Australia.. Austria.. Bangladesh.. Belgium.. Bolivia.. Bosnia and Herzegovina.. Botswana.. Brazil.. Burkina Faso.. Burundi.. Cameroon.. Canada.. Chile.. China.. Colombia.. Costa Rica.. Côte d'Ivoire.. Croatia.. Cyprus.. Czech Republic.. Denmark.. Djibouti.. Dominican Republic.. East Timor.. Ecuador.. Egypt.. El Salvador.. Eritrea.. France.. Georgia.. Germany.. Ghana.. Greece.. Guatemala.. Guyana.. Haiti.. Honduras.. Hungary.. Iceland.. India.. Indonesia.. Iraq.. Ireland.. Israel.. Italy.. Jordan.. Kazakhstan.. Kenya.. Korea, Republic of.. Kyrgyzstan.. Lebanon.. Lesotho.. Liberia.. Libya.. Lithuania..  ...   Tanzania, United Republic of.. Thailand.. Trinidad and Tobago.. Tunisia.. Uganda.. United Kingdom.. Uruguay.. Uzbekistan.. Venezuela.. Zimbabwe.. Only countries with gender quotas are included.. See also.. country overview.. special areas.. Gender quotas around the world.. Legislated Candidate Quotas.. Reserved seats.. Voluntary Political Party Quotas.. Comments.. Do you have news concerning gender-based quotas for promoting women's political participation? Please send them to us so that we can keep the information on this site up-to-date.. Latest updates.. Data on the following countries have been updated recently.. -.. 2012-08-21.. Seats held by women in the Lower House.. Electoral law quota details Lower House.. 2012-07-13.. Implementation of this quota legislation contributed to the doubling of the number of women in the National Assembly elected in June 2012.. Copyright 2010,.. International IDEA.. ,.. Stockholm University.. and.. Inter-Parliamentary Union.. |.. Contact.. Sitemap.. Disclaimer.. Top..

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  • Title: Quota Database | quotaProject: Global Database of Quotas for Women
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  • Title: About the Project | quotaProject: Global Database of Quotas for Women
    Descriptive info: [.. ].. About the Project.. Jump to section.. Partners.. Quotas and the Database.. The evidence throughout the world illustrates that there are numerous obstacles to women's political participation.. Women's participation and representation in decision making bodies at executive and legislative levels has increased over the past decades, this has been slow and uneven across the world.. In national parliaments, the global average of seats held by women is only 18.. 4 percent.. Increasing women's participation and representation in political life requires efforts to address political, economic, social, cultural and religious constraints within both formal and informal public and private spheres.. A range of strategies such as quotas have been proposed and implemented to help increase women's representation in positions of power and decision making.. As the debate about the use of quotas as a tool to increase the political participation and representation of women was gaining momentum, in 2003 International IDEA and Stockholm University initiated a research project leading to the collation of comparative knowledge and resources on the implementation and impact of quotas.. In 2009, this cooperation expanded to include the Inter-Parliamentary Union.. The first step in the collection of global information on quotas was the development of this website database.. The Database provides information on the various types of quotas in existence today, detailing the percentages and targets in countries where they are applicable.. This Database is intended as a working research tool.. That is, it will continue to expand as more information becomes available and is verified.. Only countries with electoral gender quotas will be found on this web site.. Click here for more information on.. quotas and the database.. The information in the Database will inform further research to be undertaken in this regard.. International IDEA and Stockholm University have spearheaded the studies on quotas, the debates and decision-making processes that led to their introduction, the implementation of various types of quotas including formal and informal quotas and the effects of quotas.. Through quota seminars for researchers and practitioners held in a majority of regions in the world, International IDEA and the quota research team at Stockholm University have spurred investigations on gender quotas in many countries and regions.. From a series on women's political participation and representation that are being implemented, International IDEA has published the.. Quota Report Series.. Building on workshops held in Asia (Indonesia 2002), Latin America (2003), Africa (2003), Europe (2004), Arab world (2004), these reports compile the experience of researchers and practitioners who have worked on the issue of quotas in their respective countries.. The Arab Quota Report: Selected Case Studies.. (An International IDEA Report).. The Implementation of Quotas: African Experiences.. The Implementation of Quotas: Asian Experiences.. The Implementation of Quotas: Latin American Experiences.. Spanish translation:.. La aplicación de las cuotas: experiencias latinoamericanas.. The Implementation of Quotas: European Experiences.. (An International IDEA Report in collaboration with the European Forum for Democracy and Solidarity and the CEE Network for Gender Issues).. The book.. Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers.. , ed.. By Julie Ballington and Azzra Karam (revised ed.. 2005) which has reached a large audience all over the world, contains a chapter and several case studies on gender quotas.. An academic book has been produced and edited by Drude Dahlerup:.. Women, Quotas and Politics.. (Routledge 2006).. Researchers from all major regions in the world analyse the adoption and effects of gender quotas.. Click here for more information on this project:.. www.. statsvet.. su.. se/quotas.. This website is a collaborative effort of.. International IDEA is an intergovernmental organization that supports sustainable democracy worldwide.. IDEA undertakes its work through providing comparative knowledge resources and tools, influencing policy and politics, and support democratic reforms.. This is done in electoral processes, constitution building processes, political participation and representation, democracy and development, gender in democracy, democracy assessments and addressing crosscutting issues on conflict, security, diversity and gender.. The IPU is the international organization of Parliaments, established in 1889.. The Union is the focal point for world-wide parliamentary dialogue and works for peace and co-operation among peoples and for the firm establishment of representative democracy.. It seeks to foster contacts, co-ordination, and the exchange of experience among parliaments and parliamentarians of all countries.. At the Department of Political Science at Stockholm University, Drude Dahlerup is heading a research project entitled:.. "Quotas - a Key to Equality? An International Comparison of the Use of Electoral Quotas to obtain Equal Political Citizenship for Women".. The project is supported by the Swedish Research Council.. Other researchers at the university included: Christina Alnevall, Emma Frankl, Lenita Freidenvall, Mona Lena Krook and Anja Thorup Nordlund.. Data collection methods.. Explanation of concepts and field.. The International IDEA, Inter-Parliamentary Union and Stockholm University.. contains information on the use of electoral quotas for women.. In this project,.. electoral quotas.. are defined as mandatory or targeted percentages of women candidates  ...   the situation as of March 2003.. It was the first available global overview over the use of electoral quotas for women, and data has been collected through many different sources, including, in order of authoritativeness: Constitutions and electoral laws, parliamentary websites and political party websites.. The Inter-Parliamentary Union's website on women in parliaments, as the standard reference in this field, has been of great help.. We have also consulted many other international databases and separate websites on parliaments, political parties, and international organizations.. Official electoral statistics on gender is not available in all countries in the world, although an increasing number of countries now comply with the demands of the international Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) for solid gender statistics.. In gathering all this information, we have also benefited from research made by other scholars as well as from our personal networks worldwide.. In order to check and verify the information, we have personally contacted numerous political parties, individual politicians and Electoral Management Bodies around the world, and we want to thank all for the help we have got.. Explanation of concepts and fields.. The data is presented according to which level it concerns.. At the top of each country page, information on the quota system for the Lower House (if parliament is bicameral) or for the Single House (if unicameral) will be found.. Due to the relative importance of the Single/Lower House to political decision making in most countries, this quota provision holds a substantial weight in promoting the political representation of women.. Country: We have used the common English name of countries.. Inclusion of a country on this list should not be seen as a comment by Stockholm University, International IDEA or Inter-Parliamentary Union on the status of that country or on the nature of its elections.. Even if a country has not gained full international recognition, it may have adopted quota provisions for women in its legislative assemblies.. In such cases, the information will be accessed via the entry.. Special Areas.. Total women / % women: Presents the number of seats in the Single/Lower House gained by female candidates in the most recent elections for which results are available.. If the Parliament is bicameral and if the legislated quota provision.. or.. the voluntary quotas adopted by political parties applies also to elections to the Upper house, these numbers will be presented further down the page.. Electoral System.. : We use the classification from the International IDEA project on electoral systems.. Full explanations can be found at.. idea.. int/esd.. Election details.. : For more detailed information about election results or previous elections, each country is linked to the IPU database Parline.. Data are election day figures, and do not include changes between elections.. Quota Type.. : Explains the kind of quota that applies to the legislative assemblies: legislated candidate quotas, reserved seats, or quotas adopted voluntarily by political parties.. The quota type is presented according to the level to which it applies.. One country may have several quota types.. Quota Source.. : Explains where the legislated quota is formulated.. If the source is marked as Constitution, the quota is set down in the constitution of the country.. If the source is Electoral Law, the quota is stipulated by the national legislation.. Legal Sanctions for Non-Compliance.. : This refers to legislation or regulations that apply to the enforcement of quotas, i.. e.. what penalties are involved if the quota provisions are not followed.. Only legislated sanctions, and not internal party regulations, are included.. : These are rules or targets set by political parties to include a certain percentage of women as election candidates.. Only quota provisions written into the statutes of the parties are included, not recommendations and targets ( Soft quotas ).. The parties featured here are the ones we know have adopted quotas in their statutes.. If you know of parties that have quotas but are not presented here,.. please contact us.. Only parties represented in parliament are included.. Quotas at the Sub-National Levels.. : Where we have data on quotas used at elections for sub-national legislatures, we have included them under this section.. Additional Information.. : This field includes additional information on quotas in a particular country.. This may include information on legislation that has been proposed (and not passed) in parliament, or information on the representation of women in sub-national legislatures.. We make no comment on the status of the legislature.. N/A.. : We use the term N/A to refer to information that is not applicable for a given country or a given quota system.. Countries and regions in this website do not represent the official position of the partners with regard to the legal status or policy of the entities mentioned.. It is a harmonisation of often divergent lists and practices..

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  • Title: About Quotas | quotaProject: Global Database of Quotas for Women
    Descriptive info: About Quotas.. What are Quotas.. Different Quota Systems.. Quotas: Pros and Cons.. Two Concepts of Equality.. Do Quotas work?.. This website reveals that the use of electoral quotas for women is much more widespread than is commonly held.. An increasing number of countries are currently introducing various types of gender quotas for public elections: In fact, half of the countries of the world today use some type of electoral quota for their parliament.. Today women constitute 19 percent of the members of parliaments around the world.. Recently, Rwanda superseded Sweden at the number one in the world in terms of women’s parliamentary representation 56.. 3 percent women against Sweden’s 47.. 3 percent.. Rwanda is an example of the new trend to use electoral gender quotas as a fast track to gender balance in politics.. Other parliaments, however, still have very few women elected.. Given the slow speed by which the number of women in politics is growing, there are increased calls for more efficient methods reach a gender balance in political institutions.. Quotas present one such mechanism.. The introduction of quota systems for women represents a qualitative jump into a policy of exact goals and means.. Because of its relative efficiency, the hope for a dramatic increase in women's representation by using this system is strong.. At the same time quotas raise serious questions and, in some cases, strong resistance.. What are quotas and in what way can quotas contribute to the political empowerment of women? Are electoral gender quotas a violation of the principles of liberal democracy? Or are gender quotas in fact a contribution to processes of democratization, since quotas ensure the inclusion of women into political assemblies, and furthermore, because electoral gender quotas at best open up the secret garden of nominations by making the recruitment process mote transparent and formalized.. It is important to note that there are many different types of quota systems, and that a quota system that does not match the electoral system in the country may be merely symbolic.. What are Quotas?.. The core idea behind quota systems is to recruit women into political positions and to ensure that women are not only a few tokens in political life.. This web site distinguishes between three types of gender quotas used in politics:.. Reserved seats (constitutional and/or legislative).. Legal candidate quotas (constitutional and/or legislative).. Political party quotas (voluntary).. These are the main quota types in use today.. While reserved seats regulate the number of women elected, the other two forms set a minimum for the share of women on the candidate lists, either as a legal requirement (no.. 2) or a measure written into the statutes of individual political parties (no.. 3).. Our statistics are based on these three categories.. There are however many more types, as will be discussed below.. Important is also, whether the rank order of the candidates on the lists is regulated, so that women candidates are not just placed at the bottom of the lists.. Sanctions for non-compliance are also important to look at.. In some countries quotas apply to minorities based on regional, ethnic, linguistic or religious cleavages.. Almost all political systems apply some kind of geographical quotas to ensure a minimum representation for densely populated areas, islands and the like.. However this database focuses on gender quotas - that is quotas that apply to women for elective office.. Quota systems aim at ensuring that women constitute at least a "critical minority" of 30 or 40 percent.. Quotas for women entail that women must constitute a certain number or percentage of the members of a body, whether it is a candidate list, a parliamentary assembly, a committee, or a government.. The quota system places the burden of recruitment not on the individual woman, but on those who control the recruitment process.. The core idea behind this system is to recruit women into political positions and to ensure that women are not only a token few in political life.. Previous notions of having reserved seats for only one or for very few women, representing a vague and all-embracing category of "women", are no longer considered sufficient.. Today, quota systems aim at ensuring that women constitute a large minority of 20, 30 or 40 percent, or even to ensure true gender balance of 50-50 percent.. In some countries quotas are applied as a temporary measure, that is to say, until the barriers for women's entry into politics are removed, but most countries with quotas have not limited their use of quotas in time.. Most quotas aim at increasing women's representation, because the problem to be addressed usually is the under-representation of women - this is particularly relevant since women usually constitute 50 per cent of the population in any given country.. An electoral gender quota regulation may, for example, require that at least 40 per cent of the candidates on the electoral lists are women.. Since women are the underrepresented group in political institutions everywhere, most regulations aim at securing women a minimum of seats.. Some quota systems are, however, constructed as gender-neutral, which means that they aim to correct the under-representation of both women and men or at any rate set up a maximum for both sexes.. In this case, the requirement may be that neither gender should occupy more than 60 per cent and no less that 40 per cent of the seats.. A fifty-fifty quota is in its nature gender neutral, and it also sets a maximum for women's representation, which a minimum requirement for women in fact does not.. The concept of "double quota" is sometimes used about a quota system that not only requires a certain percentage of.. women.. on the electoral list, but also prevents that the women candidates are just placed on the bottom of the list with little chance to be elected.. Argentina and Belgium are examples of countries with legal requirement of double quotas.. Placement mandates or rules about the rank order of candidates, especially at the top of the list, are other terms for the same  ...   most easily introduced in proportional representation (PR) systems.. However, quotas have also been implemented in some majority systems as this web site demonstrates.. But even in PR-systems, some political parties and parties in some constituencies may have difficulties in implementing quotas because the quota may be viewed as interference in the usual prerogatives of the local party organization to select their own candidates.. Quotas: Pros and Cons.. Quotas are a controversial measure.. Various arguments have been set forth for and against the introduction of quotas as a means to increase the political presence of women.. Some of the pros and cons include:.. Cons.. Quotas are against the principle of equal opportunity for all, since women are given preference over men.. Quotas are undemocratic, because voters should be able to decide who is elected.. Quotas imply that politicians are elected because of their gender, not because of their qualifications and that more qualified candidates are pushed aside.. Many women do not want to get elected just because they are women.. Introducing quotas creates significant conflicts within the party organization.. Quotas violate the principles of liberal democracy.. Pros.. Quotas for women do not discriminate, but compensate for actual barriers that prevent women from their fair share of the political seats.. Quotas imply that there are several women together in a committee or assembly, thus minimizing the stress often experienced by the token women.. Women have the right as citizens to equal representation.. Women's experiences are needed in political life.. Election is about representation, not educational qualifications.. Women are just as qualified as men, but women's qualifications are downgraded and minimized in a male-dominated political system.. It is in fact the political parties that control the nominations, not primarily the voters who decide who gets elected; therefore quotas are not violations of voters' rights.. Introducing quotas may cause conflicts, but may be only temporarily.. Quotas can contribute to a process of democratisation by making the nomination process more transparent and formalised.. Two Concepts of Equality.. Real equal opportunity does not exist just because formal barriers are removed.. Direct discrimination and hidden barriers prevent women from getting their share of political influence.. In general, quotas for women represent a shift from one concept of equality to another.. The classic liberal notion of equality was a notion of "equal opportunity" or "competitive equality".. Removing the formal barriers, for example, giving women voting rights, was considered sufficient.. The rest was up to the individual women.. Following strong feminist pressure in the last few decades, as expressed for instance in the Beijing Platform for Action of 1995, a second concept of equality is gaining increasing relevance and support: the notion of "equality of result".. The argument is that real equal opportunity does not exist just because formal barriers are removed.. Direct discrimination and a complex pattern of hidden barriers prevent women from being selected as candidates and getting their share of political influence.. Quotas and other forms of positive measures are thus a means towards equality of result.. The argument is based on the experience that equality as a goal cannot be reached by formal equal treatment as a means.. If barriers exist, it is argued, compensatory measures must be introduced as a means to reach equality of result.. From this perspective, quotas are not discrimination (against men), but compensation for structural barriers that women meet in the electoral process.. Do quotas work?.. And yet, women's representation might increase as a result of the very debate about introducing quotas.. But further research is needed about the implementation of quotas.. From this website it is possible to see how many countries have adopted reserved seats quotas, legislated candidate quotas and political party quotas.. However, from the figures of women’s actual political representation, the website does illustrate that quota requirements are not actually always.. implemented.. The web site reveals discrepancies between quota requirements and actual representation.. Since the website only gives information about quotas rules that have been adopted, and not about the compliance in practice in individual parties, it is not possible to make conclusions about the connection between types of quota provisions and women's representation other than that many quota provisions are not properly implemented.. The result of introducing quotas should be studied quantitatively as well as qualitatively.. Electoral statistics on the country pages show the number of women elected at the last election.. Unfortunately, official electoral statistics in many countries do not provide details of the candidates.. nominated.. for election by sex, which then must be provided through other channels, including through political parties.. The effect of quotas should also be studied in qualitative terms, looking into the intended (empowerment) as well as the unintended consequences (e.. stigmatization, glass ceilings that may prevent women from increasing their numbers above the specified quota requirement or unintended fractions between different groups of women).. The use of quotas is increasingly influenced by international recommendations and from cross-country inspiration.. It seems important, however, that quotas are not just imposed from above, but rest on grass root mobilization of women and the active participation of women’s organizations.. Quotas in themselves do not remove all the other barriers for women's full citizenship.. But under certain conditions electoral gender quotas can lead to historical leaps in women’s political representation.. Written by Drude Dahlerup, professor of Political Science, Stockholm University, Sweden.. This piece is based on Drude Dahlerup: "Increasing Women’s Political Representation: New Trends in Gender Quotas", in Ballington and Karam, eds.. 2005: Women in Parliament.. Beyond Numbers (revised edition) and Drude Dahlerup, ed.. , Women, Quotas and Politics.. Routledge 2006.. This is the first world-wide, comparative study of the use of different gender quota systems, written by researchers from all major regions of the world.. The project was financial supported by the Swedish Research Council.. For a taxonomy of gender quota systems, see Drude Dahlerup Lenita Freidenvall, Gender Quotas in politics A Constitutional Challenge , in Susan H.. Williams, ed.. , Constituting Equality.. Gender Equality and Comparative Constitutional Law.. Cambridge University Press 2009.. Copyright 2009 International IDEA and Stockholm University..

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  • Title: Search database | quotaProject: Global Database of Quotas for Women
    Descriptive info: 1.. Select the geographic scope.. All regions.. Africa.. Americas.. Asia.. Europe.. Oceania.. Click on.. to add all countries listed in the left box, or.. to add just the highlighted country.. 2.. Filter the results.. 1.. Filter by Quota Type.. (.. all.. clear.. ).. Legislated Candidate Quotas.. Reserved Seats.. Political Party Quotas.. Don't filter.. 2.. Filter by Quota Source.. (of legislated candidate quotas or reserved seats).. Constitution.. Electoral Law.. Political Funding Legislation.. 3.. Levels to filter by.. Single/Lower House.. Upper House.. Sub-National Level.. 3.. Choose results to display.. Use default fields.. Specify fields.. default.. Parliament type..  ...   Electoral law quota details.. Political funding legislation quota details.. Legal sanctions for non-compliance.. Rank-order rules.. Voluntary political party quotas.. Additional information about gender quotas.. Sources for gender quotas.. Levels to display.. (applies only to the fields that are level-specific).. Download as.. Excel.. CSV.. This is a preview of the data.. Close it using the X in the upper right corner to access the Quotaproject interface.. Click a country to view that country's page.. Click a field heading to see a summary and country details for that field.. Click a data entry to view more details..

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  • Title: Sources and Additional Reading | quotaProject: Global Database of Quotas for Women
    Descriptive info: Quota data.. Sources and Additional Reading.. Global General Resources.. Equatorial Guinea.. Ethiopia.. Malawi.. Antigua and Barbuda.. Korea, Dem.. People's Republic of.. Yugoslavia, SFR (1943-1992).. Papers and Conferences.. Publications Resources.. Stockholm University Working Papers.. Other Contributions..

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  • Title: Recent Updates | quotaProject: Global Database of Quotas for Women
    Descriptive info: Recent Updates.. 2012-08-21: Seats held by women in the Lower House.. 2012-08-21: Electoral law quota details Lower House.. 2012-08-21: Rank-order rules Lower House.. 2012-08-21: Legal sanctions for non-compliance in Lower House.. 2012-08-21: Quota type in Lower House.. 2012-07-13: Implementation of this quota legislation contributed to the doubling of the number of women in the National Assembly elected in June 2012.. 2012-07-09: Seats held by women in the Lower House.. 2012-07-09: New 20 % candidate quota results in the election of only 11 % of female parliamentarians in the May 2012 legislative elections.. 2012-07-09: Legislated candidate quota requires minimum 20 % of candidates to be women.. 2012-07-09: Legal sanctions for non-compliance  ...   had mistakenly been included.. 2012-06-07: Political funding legislation quota details Lower House.. 2010-05-20: Quota type sub-national level.. 2010-05-20: Name of lower house.. 2012-05-25: Seats held by women in the Lower House.. 2012-01-16: A new law stipulating a 50% gender quota with alternation has been passed.. 2011-12-02: Total seats in Lower House.. 2009-11-25: Seats held by women in the Lower House.. 2009-11-25: Total seats in Lower House.. 2012-05-25: In the aftermath of Egypt's landmark elections, representation of women in the assembly dropped to 2%.. 2012-03-06: Irish bill proposes to decrease state funding to parties by half if parties do not select a minimum 30% female candidates at the next general election..

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  • Title: Frequently Asked Questions | quotaProject: Global Database of Quotas for Women
    Descriptive info: Frequently Asked Questions.. Typology.. What are quotas?.. Quotas in politics involve setting up a percentage or number for the representation of a certain group, here women, most often in the form of a minimum percentage, for instance 20, 30 or 40 percent.. Quotas are used as a measure to increase the representation of historically excluded or under-represented groups in politics.. Quota regulations may target women or may be gender neutral, e.. ‘no more than 60% of either sex'.. What types of quotas are there?.. This website differentiates between two types of quotas:.. Legal quotas: Quotas which are mandated in a country's constitution or by law, usually in the electoral law.. Legal quotas regulate the proceedings of all political parties in a country and may also prescribe sanctions in case of non-compliance.. Voluntary party quotas: Quotas which are voluntarily decided by one or more political parties in a country.. In such cases some political parties may have quotas, while other parties reject them.. Different types of quotas target different levels in the nomination process.. Quotas usually target one of three levels in the nomination process:.. the pool of potential candidates (aspirants).. the candidates that stand for election (candidates).. the elected (MPs or equivalent).. The women's short lists in the UK are an example of a type of quota system targeting the first level.. At this level, the aim of quotas is to enlarge the pool of aspirants willing to pursue a political career.. These quotas are thus decided upon by the political parties themselves.. Thus, women's short lists could be seen as an example of voluntary party quotas, where political parties adopt a quotas for the number of women it will send forward as party nominees to contest the election.. Candidate quotas for party lists are an example of a type of quota system targeting the second level.. Candidate quotas apply to the nomination of candidates, eg.. where a political party must ensure that 30 percent of the candidates it nominates for election are women.. These may be mandated either by the parties themselves (party quotas) or by the constitution or law (legal quotas).. The crucial issue is whether there are any rules concerning the rank order on the list of the party.. Thus, candidate quotas can be seen as an example of either legal quotas or voluntary party quotas, pending on where they are mandated.. Reserved seats are an example of a quota system targeting the third level.. At this level, the aim of quotas is to guarantee that a certain number or percentage of seats in parliament is set aside to women.. Women are guaranteed to have these seats.. These quotas are usually mandated by the constitution and/or law, and can thus be seen as an example of legal quotas.. For further reading, see “.. ”.. Which quota type is the most efficient one?.. Even if constitutional amendments and new electoral laws providing gender quotas may seem more commanding, it is not at all evident that these methods are more efficient than political party quotas in increasing the number of women in parliament.. It all depends on the actual rules and the possible sanctions for non-compliance, as well as on the general opportunities that exit for quotas within a country.. How do different quota types match different electoral systems?.. However, quotas have also been implemented in some majority systems as the web site demonstrates.. But even in PR-systems, some political parties in some constituencies may have difficulties in implementing quotas because the quota may be viewed as interference in the usual prerogatives of the local party organization to select their own candidates.. Adoption of quotas.. Quotas are spreading all over the world.. Where and when did this trend start?.. Gender quotas have been introduced in quite a number of countries around the world, countries of various political and socio-economical backgrounds.. The idea of introducing quotas has usually travelled between countries in the same region.. In Latin American, for example, Argentina was the forerunner with its introduction of legal candidate quotas in 1991.. Since then this type of quotas has spread all over the Latin-American region.. In Africa, South Africa has inspired other countries in the region to adopt voluntary party quotas, while Uganda has led concerning reserved seats.. In South Asia gender quotas at the local level have been introduced  ...   this is exactly what women's movements are requiring.. In patronage systems, the means of women's access seem to be very important for legitimacy and effectiveness.. To reject any relevance of such a project is to deny that there might be a link between the exclusion of women and the lack of democratic development as well as development in general.. In newer development discourses equality between the sexes is not just seen as something that will gradually evolve from development.. Rather, the emancipation of women and women's active involvement is perceived as a prerequisite for social and economic development.. Implementation of quotas.. To what extent have quota regulations actually been implemented? Can you give us some good/bad examples?.. The introduction of gender quotas has not resulted in uniform increases in the numbers of women parliamentarians worldwide.. Since the website only gives information about quotas rules that have been adopted and not about the compliance in practice in individual countries or parties, it is not possible to make conclusions about the connection between types of quota provisions and women's representation – other than many quota provisions are not properly implemented.. Costa Rica and Belgium (legal quotas), South Africa and Sweden (voluntary party quotas) as well as Uganda and Rwanda (reserved seats) are successful examples.. For further reading, see Dahlerup ed.. (2006) Women, Quotas and Politics.. Effects.. Quotas are designed to achieve a numerical gender balance in public decision-making.. But have quotas actually increased the number of women in parliaments?.. In terms of number, electoral gender quotas can be a very efficient tool to rapidly increase women's representation in politics, or to start a process of inclusion of women in male-dominated political institutions.. A comparison between countries with and without quotas shows that the number of women in parliaments is higher in countries with quotas.. However, if the quota rules are unclear and do not match the electoral system in place, and if there are no sanctions for non-compliance and no rules about the ranking on the list, quotas may lead to minimal or no numerical increase in women's political representation.. Quotas lead to a numerical gender balance in public decision-making.. But do the elected female politicians really get more power?.. This web site covers the introduction of quotas and different quota types, and not the substantive representation of women politicians.. However, research shows that once elected many barriers still block women's ability to make use of their positions as elected representatives in the way they wish.. Quotas do not remove such barriers like the double standards women politicians face in politics, the lack of campaign funding, the negotiations between family responsibilities and politics.. Information on women's political representation.. Where can I find information on research on gender quotas in a specific country?.. Please click on the link to “.. resources.. ” and then select the region or country of interest.. Note that only countries with quotas are listed.. On that page, see also the box “Papers and Conferences”.. Here you find links to information on.. IDEA publications.. Stockholm University working papers.. other contributions.. Where can I find information on the number of women in national parliaments?.. Data regarding the number of women represented in parliaments around the world can be found at the.. Why does one find different figures on women's parliamentary representation?.. This web site gives figures on women's representation in national parliaments from the last election.. Other web sites sometimes give figures on the present situation, including changes since last election, for instance the result of by-elections.. Where can I find information on women's autonomous groups?.. This database does not have any material that can assist you.. You might want to consult.. UNIFEM.. webpages.. How do I find out the type of electoral system that a country is using?.. Information on electoral systems can be found on IDEA's website at.. int.. Can I link a paper on quotas to the quota database?.. Yes you may.. Please.. send your paper/case study to us.. , and we will publish it under “.. Papers Conferences.. ” and in the section “.. This is a service provided by IDEA and Stockholm University to encourage sharing of information on issues related to quotas.. Please note that these papers are posted as received from the authors.. IDEA, nor Stockholm University, is responsible for the content of these papers..

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  • Title: Quota Database | quotaProject: Global Database of Quotas for Women
    Descriptive info: English..

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  • Title: Country overview | quotaProject: Global Database of Quotas for Women
    Descriptive info: ] [.. Country overview.. Sort by:.. Country.. Region.. Click column heading to sort, click country name for details.. Please note that only countries with quotas are listed below.. Quota Type(s).. Results last election.. Click to sort by % of women.. in parliament.. SNTV.. ).. Legislated quotas for the Single/Lower House.. Legislated quotas for the Upper House.. Legislated quotas at the Sub-national level.. 69 of 249.. 27.. 7%.. List PR.. 23 of 140.. 16.. 4%.. Voluntary quotas adopted by political parties.. 30 of 389.. 7.. 85 of 220.. 38.. 6%.. 96 of 257.. 37.. Parallel.. 14 of 131.. 10.. AV.. 37 of 150.. 24.. 51 of 183.. 9%.. FPTP.. 64 of 345.. 18.. 59 of 150.. 39.. 3%.. MMP.. 33 of 130.. 25.. 7 of 42.. 5 of 63.. 44 of 513.. 8.. 17 of 111.. 15.. 34 of 106.. 32.. 1%.. 25 of 180.. 13.. 76 of 308.. 17 of 120.. 14.. 2%.. N.. 637 of 2,987.. 21.. 21 of 166.. 12.. 22 of 57.. 36 of 151.. 23.. 8%.. 6 of 56.. 44 of 200.. 22%.. 28 of 255.. 11%.. 70 of 179.. PBV.. 9 of 65.. 38 of 183.. 20.. 20 of 65.. 30.. 40 of 124.. 10 of 508.. 2%.. 22 of 84.. 26.. 33 of 150..  ...   224.. 47 of 300.. Kosovo.. 40 of 120.. 33.. 28 of 120.. BV.. 4 of 128.. 29 of 120.. 7 of 73.. 33 of 200.. 5%.. 27 of 141.. 12 of 60.. 20%.. 34 of 123.. 15 of 147.. 6 of 69.. 21 of 95.. 22.. 131 of 500.. 19 of 101.. 9 of 76.. 11.. 66 of 395.. 98 of 250.. 19 of 78.. 197 of 594.. 37 of 92.. 40.. 15 of 113.. 67 of 169.. 76 of 342.. Palestinian Territory, Occupied.. 17 of 132.. 6 of 71.. 10 of 80.. 28 of 130.. 62 of 280.. 109 of 460.. 61 of 230.. 38 of 334.. 45 of 80.. 56.. 64 of 150.. 54 of 250.. 16 of 121.. 26 of 150.. 17.. 29 of 90.. 37 of 546.. 6.. 178 of 400.. 44.. 88 of 332.. 126 of 350.. 36%.. 12 of 225.. 5.. 87 of 346.. 157 of 349.. 45%.. 57 of 200.. 28.. Taiwan.. of 113.. -1%.. 79 of 500.. 12 of 42.. 58 of 217.. 131 of 375.. 34.. 143 of 650.. 15 of 99.. 28 of 165.. 17%.. 32 of 214.. 15%.. Total # countries with constitutional, electoral or political party quotas:.. 112.. Average level of representation for women countries with quotas:.. 6%..

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  • Title: Voluntary Political Party Quotas | quotaProject: Global Database of Quotas for Women
    Descriptive info: Limit to region:.. - Select -.. Party.. Acronym.. Official Name.. Details, Quota provisions.. National Liberation Front.. FLN.. Front de libération nationale.. In each province, 2 out of the first 5 names on a list must be women in each of the 48 provinces.. Movement of Society for Peace.. HMS.. Harakat Moudjtamaa As-Silm / Mouvement de la société pour la paix.. The HMS aims to ensure that one-fifth of candidates at the regional level are women.. In districts with small magnitudes, one of every three candidates should be a woman.. Justicialist Party.. PJ.. Partido Justicialista.. The national statutes states that at all levels within the party, as well as on electoral lists, the representation of women must be respected.. This is specified in the provincial party statutes, percentages varying between 30 and 50 percent.. Australian Labor Party.. ALP.. In 2002 the ALP introduced a 40 percent quota for party positions, union delegations and for pre-selection for public office and positions at a State and federal level, building on a 35% quota introduced in 1994.. Either of the sexes shall be represented by no less than 40 percent on party electoral lists.. (National Platform and Consitution 2009, Article 10a.. ).. The Greens-Green Alternative.. GA.. Die Grünen-Die Grünen Alternativen.. GA has a 50 percent quota for women on party lists (1993).. Austrian People's party.. ÖVP.. Österreichische Volkspartei.. ÖVP has a 33.. 3 percent quota for women on party lists (1995).. Social Democratic Party of Austria.. SPÖ.. Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs.. SPÖ has a 40 percent quota for women on party lists (1985).. National Unity Front.. UN.. Unidad Nacional.. In Article 31 of its founding statutes from 2003, UN writes that women shall be represented by 50 percent at all levels of the party structures, including candidate lists.. This has not always been put into practice.. Botswana Congress Party.. BCP.. In 1999 the Botswana Congress Party introduced a 30 percent quota for women on electoral lists.. The party has not always met this target.. However, in the 2010 national congress elections the party managed to reach the 30 percent target.. Botswana National Front.. BNF.. In 1999 the Botswana National Front introduced a 30 percent quota for women on electoral lists.. Cameeroon People´s Democratic Movement.. RDPC.. Rassemblement démocratique du Peuple Camerounais.. In 1996 the Cameeroon People's Democratic Movement introduced a 25-30 percent quota for women on electoral lists.. Social Democratic Front.. SDF.. Front Social Démocrate.. SDF has adopted a 25 percent quota.. New Democratic Party.. NDP.. In 1985 the NDP adopted a target of 50 percent women among its candidates at federal elections.. It has also adopted (and is enforcing) a policy whereby, in each federal riding, at least one woman must be in the running at the nomination stage.. Liberal Party of Canada.. LPC.. In 1993 the LPC set a target to elect 25 percent women.. Party for Democracy.. PPD.. Partido por la Democracia.. Neither men nor women should be represented on electoral lists by more than 60 percent (Party statutes, article 7).. However, this provision has been weakly enforced (Ríos Tobar, et al.. 2008, p.. 18, 24).. Socialist Party of Chile.. PS.. Partido Socialista de Chile.. Since 2003, the quota has been twofold: Neither of the sexes shall be represented on electoral lists by more than 60 percent; neither sex shall occupy more than 70 percent of the seats in parliament (Party statutes, Article 40).. However, this provision has not been adhered to in practice (Ríos Tobar, et al.. Christian Democratic Party.. PDC.. Partido Demócrata Cristiano.. According to article 105 of the party statutes, PDC has a 20 percent quota for women on electoral lists.. This provision was adopted in 1996 but has been weakly enforced (Ríos Tobar, et al.. National Liberation Party.. PLN.. Partido Liberación Nacional.. PLN alternates men and women candidates on electoral lists (Article 85 and 108, party statutes; Jager Contreras 2008, p 15-19).. Nominations to be defined by provincial election in National Plenary Assembly, is to respect the representation of at least 40% for each gender.. (Article 85, Partido Liberacion Nacional Estatuto).. Christian-Social Unity Party.. PUSC.. Partido Unidad Socialcristiana.. PUSC alternates men and women candidates on electoral lists.. In the integration of all party structures, no more than 60% of its members shall be of the same gender, except for the District Assemblies and the Women's Front.. The configuration of all candidate lists to elected office shall be held in such a way that no more than 60% of the members are of the same gender.. Citizen Action Party.. PAC.. Partido Accion Ciudadana.. 50 percent of the candidates must be women, placed at every second place (zipper system) on electoral lists (Article 36, party statutes; Jager Contreras 2008, p 15-19).. Libertarian Movement Party.. PML.. Partido Movimiento Libertario.. At least 40% of the seats to be allocated, in a possible government of the Libertarian Movement Party, will be occupied by women.. Future internal party structures shall be formed with at least 40% women.. The positions to elective office that are presented by the party must be integrated of at least 40% of women, who must be placed in electable positions.. (Article 72, Partido Movimiento Libertario Estatuto).. Ivorian Popular Front.. FPI.. Front Populaire Ivoirien.. Since 2001 the Ivorian Public Front has a 30 percent quota for women at all levels of its structures, including electoral candidate lists.. The quota has not always been put into practice.. (FPI statutes, article 14, June 2009.. Social Democratic Party.. SDP.. Socijaldemokratska Partija Hrvatske.. In 1996 SDP introduced a voluntary party quota of 40 percent.. In 2000 the party adopted a formal 40 percent quota for men and women on electoral lists, but no rank-order rules.. Movement of Social Democrats.. KISOS.. Kinima Sosialdimokraton.. KISOS has a 30 percent quota for women.. Social Democrats.. ČSSD.. Česká strana sociáln demokratická.. 25 percent of those elected by the party must be women.. If a local party organization has failed to nominate 25 percent women among its top candidates, then the Social Democratic Women's Organization has the right to nominate extra women.. National Liberation Front Farabundo Martí.. FMLN.. Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional.. FMLN has a 35 percent quota for women (party statutes of 1996, article 9).. Socialist Party.. Parti Socialiste.. The PS has a 50 percent quota for electoral lists (1990).. Social Democratic Party of Germany.. SPD.. Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands.. At least 40 % of each gender in boards and lists (Party Statutes, Article 11 [2], Electoral Code of the Party, Article 4 & 8 [2]).. The Left Party.. Die Linkspartei.. On nomination lists, the first two and then every other place are reserved for women (Party Statutes, Article 10 [5]).. Alliance 90/The Greens.. Bündnis 90/Die Grünen.. Since 1986, Alliance 90/The Greens have had a 50 percent quota for women on party lists (Geissel 2008, p.. 61).. Christian Democratic Union.. CDU.. Christlich-Demokratische Union.. At least one-third of CDU electoral lists and party officials should be women (1996).. If this quota is not met, the internal elections  ...   the Centre Party, §4:4).. Christian People's Party.. KrF.. Kristelig Folkeparti.. KrF has had a 40 percent quota for both sexes since 1993 (Freidenvall, et.. National Republic Association.. ANR.. Asociación Nacional Republicana/Partido Colorado.. ANR has a 30 percent quota for women on electoral lists (Party statues 2001, Article 72; Pereira & González 2008, p.. 4-5).. Authentic Radical Liberal Party.. PLRA.. Partido Liberal Radical Auténtico.. One third of candidates on electoral lists must be women (Party statutes 2006, Article 9; Pereira & González 2008, p.. National Union of Ethical Citizens.. UNACE.. Partido Unión Nacional de Ciudadanos Éticos.. UNACE has a 30 percent quota for women on electoral lists (Party statutes 2002, Article 76; Pereira & González 2008, p.. Party for a Country of Solidarity.. PPS.. Partido País Solidario.. PPS has a 30 percent quota for women on electoral lists.. There is also a rank-order rule for the first third of places on electoral lists, stipulating that male and female candidates are placed alternately (Party statutes 2002, Article 76; Pereira & González 2008, p.. Gabriela Women's Party.. An all Women's party, representing 250 women's organisations.. The party got 3.. 7 percent of the votes in the 2004 national elections.. Philippines Democratic Socialist Party.. PDSP.. Partido Demokratiko-Sosyalista ng Pilipinas.. PDSP has a 25 percent quota for women.. Social Democratic Party of Romania.. PSDR.. Partidul Social Democrat Romania.. The PSDR had a 25 percent quota for women on party lists.. The party is now, since 2001, a member of the "Partidul Social Democrat" (PSD), the Social Democratic Party.. Democratic Party.. Partidul Democrat.. The Democratic Party has adopted a 30 percent quota.. PSD.. Partidul Social Democrat.. In 2001 PSDR (Romanian Social Democratic Party) and PDSR (Socialist Democratic Party of Romania) merged into a new political party; PSD.. Prior to the 2004 election PSD adopted a 30 percent gender quota.. Communist Party of Slovakia.. KSS.. Komunistická strana Slovenska.. One woman among the eight first candidates.. The party is not represented in parliament after the 2006 election.. Alliance of the New Citizen.. ANO.. Aliancia Nového Obcana.. ANO has an informal 33 percent quota for women.. Party of the Democratic Left.. SDL.. Strana Demokratickej Lavice.. SDL had a 20 percent quota for women on party lists.. The party merged with the social democratic SMER.. SMER has no quota for women.. People's Party - Movement for a Democratic Slovakia.. HZDS.. udová strana - Hnutie za demokratické Slovensko.. HZDS has a parity target.. SD.. Socialni Demokrati.. In 1992 the United List of Social Democrats introduced a firm 33 percent quota for both genders.. In the 1996 election 42 percent of the party's candidates were women, but not even one of these got elected.. The quota was changed from firm to soft in 1997, and the party has currently a 40 percent target.. (In 2005 the party shortened it's name to Socialni Demokrati).. Liberal Democracy Party.. LDS.. Liberalna Demokracija Slovenije.. In 1998 the quota was changed to a gender neutral 25 percent, but is supposed to increase by 3 percentage points in every upcoming election until it reaches 40 percent.. African National Congress.. ANC.. In 2006 ANC adopted a 50% gender quota in local elections.. The quota was extended to national elections as well in 2009.. The party statute reads: "the provision of a quota of not less than fifty percent of women in all elected structures" (ANC Constitution, Article 6 [1]).. Currently, ANC has won 264 seats in the national assembly, little less than two-thirds majority.. Spanish Socialist Workers' Party.. PSOE.. Partido Socialista Obrero Espanol.. Since 1997, PSOE has a 40 percent quota for either sex (party statutes, 2009, article 7k).. The party first introduced a quota rule, at 25 percent, in 1988.. United Left.. IU.. Izquierda Unida.. Since 1997, IU has a 40 percent quota for either sex (party statutes 2008, article 7).. The quota was first introduced in 1989, at 25 percent.. Socialist Party of Catalonia.. PSC.. Partit dels Socialistes de Catalunya.. PSC has a 40 percent quota for either sex (2000).. The quota was first introduced in 1982 (12 percent) and enlarged in 1987 (15 percent), 1990 (25 percent) and 1996 (30 percent).. Initiative for Catalonia- Green.. ICV.. Iniciativa per Catalunya-Verds.. ICV has a 40 percent quota for either sex (2002).. The quota was first introduced in 1991 (30 percent).. Republican Left of Catalonia.. ERC.. Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya.. ERC has a 40 percent quota for either sex (2004).. Nationalist Galician Block.. BNG.. Bloque Nacionalista Galego.. Quotas were approved by BNG in 2002 (40 percent quota for either sex).. Canarian Coalition.. CC.. Coalición Canaria.. A 40 percent quota for either sex was approved by CC in 2000.. (Party statutes, 2008, article 4:18.. Socialdemokraterna.. Party quotas: Zipper system (one sex alternates the other on party lists) (1993).. Internal quotas since 1978.. Left Party.. V.. Vänsterpartiet.. Party quotas: A 50% minimum quota for women on party lists (1993).. First party quota rule introduced in 1987.. Green Party.. MP.. Miljöpartiet de Gröna.. Party quota: A 50 % gender quota on party lists, plus minus one person (1997).. Internal quotas since 1981.. Moderate Party.. M.. Moderaterna.. Party quotas: Two women and two men shall be placed on the top four positions on the party list for the election to the European Parliament in 2009.. Social Democratic Party of Switzerland.. SPS/PSS.. Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz.. The party has a 40 percent quota for women on party lists.. Democrat Party.. Pak Prachatipat.. The Democrat Party has a target of 30 percent women candidates for election.. Liberal Democrats.. In 2001 the Liberal Democrats adopted a 40 percent target of women candidates, and at the same time rejected all-women shortlists.. Prior to the 2005 elections, the party placed women in 40 percent of the "winnable seats".. They implemented a "zipping" system on their candidate lists for the European election in 1999 which were conducted using List-PR, but did not use the zipping system in the European Parliament election of 2002.. Party members have two votes - one for a woman and one for a man.. The man and woman with the most votes is selected.. Socialist Party of Uruguay.. Partido Socialista del Uruguay.. In the 1980's PS adopted a quota for women.. The quota is dependent upon the percentage of women members of the Party in each jurisdiction.. (Statutes 2003, Art.. 65).. Zimbabwe African National Union Patriotic Front.. ZANU-PF.. ZANU-PF is committed to ensure that at least one-third of all candidates are female.. However, this quota has not been systematically applied.. Movement for Democratic Change - Tsvangirai.. MDC-T.. MDC-T shall work for the equal representation of women as far as possible in public office and within the Party (Constitution of MDC 3.. 3k).. At their April 2011 Congress resolutions the party also made the promise to ensure that women hold 50% of all elected positions in public positions and within the party (Zimbabwe case study report p.. 16).. However, this target has not been achieved.. Please note that only countries with quotas are listed..

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